Two large mounds, 300m apart, are not hugely exciting to look at, but have proved greatly significant in uncovering information about early agricultural settlement in Turkmenistan. The Anau Hills became world famous, becoming the main source for the study of ancient agricultural cultures of southern Turkmenistan.The settlement consists from a fortress with an area of more than 7 hectares (in terms of irregular circumference, 300-350 m in diameter), built on a hill and towering 10-12 m. The northern hill with a diameter of 60 m at a height of 12 m. The knownness of Anau is due only to the fact that it was the first of the open monuments of this circle. Medieval site of ancient settlement east of the Eneolithic hills of Anau. It is identified with the Parthian “camp” of Gatar, mentioned by Isidor of Harak and the city of Bagabad, which appears in written sources of the 15-18 centuries. The name “Anau” has been used since the middle of the 18th century and comes from pers. “Abi-Nau” (New Water). This work led to the identification of four cultural layers: the Eneolithic Anau I and II cultures, in the north mound, and Bronze Age (Anau III) and Iron Age (Anau IV) cultures of the later south mound, to which the Anau settlement seems to have shifted around 4,500 years ago.